60.Technology and Society by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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The most general and important strategies to lessen environmental impacts of technology center on improving land, energy, and labor productivity. Governments, individuals, firms, and society at large spend resources on innovation, experimentation, and continual improvement. Other strategies center on specific technologies to reduce particular environmental impacts by fitting them with cleanup technologies. Still other strategies focus on radically redesigning the production process and the entire product cycle.

However, many developed countries have increased their forested area and reduced the area of cropland (12). The first complete assessment of forest cover was estimated in 1990 by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). , Ref. 4), the green areas of the planet in 1980 were as follows: 51 million km2 (38%) covered with forests, close to 70 million km2 (51%) with grass, and 15 million km2 (11%) with crops. In the forest land, there was estimated to be 34 million km2 of native tree species and plantation forests, and the remaining 17 million km2 consisted of other woody vegetation such as open woodland, scrubland, and bushland.

Coupled with the overall population growth, the increasing rural-to-urban migration causes infrastructure, health, housing, and transportation problems. Industry. In order to appreciate how and why current industry has been developed and how it affects the environment, it is important to look at the historical development of industry. While important technological innovations can be identified in earlier historical periods, the most important ones that significantly influence the environment took place in the eighteenth century.

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