By Charles H. Drummond III
Remain up to date with this number of papers provided on the 69th convention on Glass difficulties on the Ohio kingdom college. issues comprise melting and molding, refractories, and environmental concerns and new products.Content:
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Extra info for 69th Conference on Glass Problems: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 30, Issue 1
Therefore local energy overload is connected with destabilisation of the batch layer. Strong convection directly to the batch layer should be avoided to keep homogeneous or rather stable. 4 m deep - 12 vertical bottom electrodes. They create a inner circle and an outer circle. - The electric power supply is realized by 3-phase in star connection, whereby a outer electrode is connected to inner electrode in opposite position. 0 kWhlm2. The maximum bottom temperature is approx. 1430 "C. The necessary refining temperature for high quality glass of 1480 "C can not be reached due to instabilities of the batch layer.
According to equation 19, the [SO31 content at equilibrium with these p02 and pS02 levels will decrease. This means that more sulfate (assuming the same level of sulfate addition to the batch) has been removed from the melt during fining in melts with helium or more water, and more SO2 and oxygen gas has been formed in presence of gases such as helium or water vapor. The effect of extra dissolved water in the melt on viscosity is rather low for melt temperatures of about 1400 "C: glass melt exposed to oxygen firing compared to glass molten in airfired furnace: 2-4 "C lower temperatures for the same viscosity.
In this article we classify some different bubble sources and bubble formation, as an example. Examples of modeling and bubble gas analyses using a Mass Spectrometer for single bubble categories and bubble source identification are shown. During the presentation of this paper we will show several practical customer examples. 1. INTRODUCTION Gaseous inclusions in glass are one of the most common defects affecting the glass quality. The position of the bubble in the glass, the bubble size distribution, the gas content, and precipitated inclusions together with the knowledge of interaction mechanisms help the analyst to identify the source of bubble defects.